Geographical Context

The geographical coverage of CMDO’s research and advocacy projects/activities mainly include FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. Both FATA and majority of KP districts with millions populations are among the poorest parts of Pakistan. The large number of population living in these regions lacks access to basic services including clean drinking water, sanitation and adequate physical access to social services. Majority of people depend on subsistence agriculture and livestock and the visible absence of progress translates even small shocks into large increases in destitution. In both regions, water, sanitation, agriculture, and livestock sectors have been identified to be especially poorly resourced and under-developed.

Over 97% of the population in FATA resides in rural areas with 2.7 million hectares under agricultural use. The unemployment is particularly high among young men aged 15-30. The region is the most underdeveloped in Pakistan with over 60% of its population living below national poverty line[1]. Similarly, CMDO’s intervened districts are also generally considered as low human development districts in the KP province. There is a broad-based awareness of FATA and Southern KP region’s acute development disparities with the rest of Pakistan. The militancy crisis in KP and FATA is also a key contributor to stagnant growth and high unemployment.

The prevailing colonial age administrative structures and laws in FATA is also one major hurdle in the provision of basic human rights to local tribal population and in the acceleration of development process in the region. The public sector institutions both in FATA and intervened KP districts are lacking the capacities to meet the development challenges and address the development needs of the local population. There is shortage of public policy research specifically addressing the issues concerning to the complex socio-political environments and exploitative governing structures and highlighting genuine development aspirations of tribal and semi tribal communities living in FATA and KP Province.

[1] Bureau of Statistics, FATA Cell, Planning and Development Department, Peshawar

Research Projects/Activities

Conflict Management in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan

This research study is identifying, mapping, and analyzing the fundamental causes and stakeholders behind the prevailing multifarious forms of conflicts and violence in the tribal areas of Pakistan. The research study is attempting to answer some questions which include that how colonial age political and administrative structures heavily contributed in the continuation of war and breeding extremism among local tribes. Is Talibanization in reality a grass root movement of local tribes or is it externally controlled and manipulated by terrorists and other hidden forces. This research study is bringing forward tribal perspective and recommending an action plan and strategy that how local tribes in combination with external support structures can defeat terrorism and how they can heavily contribute in the transformation of conflicts towards its peaceful resolutions. The research paper is also identifying the broader features and attributes of peace program which need to be promoted and strengthened in order to defeat extremism, intolerance, and immoral practices in the tribal society.

Post Conflict Need Assessment (PCNA) in FATA

The Strategic goal of PCNA was to build Responsiveness & Effectiveness of the State to Restore Citizen Trust. The PCNA objectives include Counter-Radicalization and Foster Reconciliation, Stimulate Employment and livelihood Opportunities and Ensure Provision of Basic Services. CMDO undertook PCNA surveys in four agencies of FATA which include Bajur, Khyber, Kurram, and South Waziristan agencies. Overall, 48 focus groups discussions with various population segments of local tribes were organized in order to get in-depth qualitative data on variety of issues concerning to the PCNA. Such issues mainly include what are the underlying causes of crisis in FATA, What motivates the supporters of conflict, and what could be peace priorities and its impacts on local population. The findings of PCNA from these four conflict prone agencies of FATA were later incorporated in the national level conflict management and development strategies for FATA.

Children in Armed Conflicts-A case study of Tribal Areas

This research study is one integral part of all such previous efforts and aiming to look further deep into the child protection and care needs of hundreds thousands children entrapped in the armed conflicts in FATA and KP. The research study has developed analysis on socio-economic conditions and causes and reasons behind multiple impacts on the lives of affected children in the conflict areas of FATA and KP and how they are directly engaged by the militant factions in the ongoing violence and conflicts. The study is also providing some insight on the state of children trapped in armed conflicts at global levels and countries in the region and after analyzing child protection policies and programs being implemented in such conflict zones the research study has developed recommendations for a long term child protection program for the tribal regions of Pakistan.

Children Engagement in Armed Conflicts-Study of Children who worked for Militants

CMDO conducted an exclusive research study that aimed to explore the causes and factors that compel children to engage in armed conflicts. The study further explored roles and responsibilities of children while they were working for militants. The study was based on Mixed-method research design where detailed information was collected from a total of 30 children who were captured by security forces from Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province and the tribal areas of Pakistan. The interviewed children also include suicide bombers who were trained in militant camps but arrested by security forces before their intended actions of undertaking suicide attacks in the urban areas of Pakistan.

Impacts of Armed Conflicts on Poverty in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

This research study was conducted with the main objective to analyze the impact of conflicts on poverty in two districts of KP. Respondents were interviewed for their perceptions on the drivers and impact of conflict on their lives and priority based need assessment was made accordingly. A total of 300 respondents, 150 from each district were selected through simple random sampling technique. Data was computed and analyzed. Findings of the study enable CMDO to propose a strategy and an action plan for appropriate interventions addressing livelihood challenges of the most affected vulnerable target groups affected by prolonged conflicts in KP Province.

Development Planning of Villages and Union Councils in Southern KP

CMDO in collaboration with its COs/VOs/LSOs network in Southern KP undertook detailed participatory development planning activities in relation to the formation of numerous Village Development Plans (VDPs) and Union Council Development Plans (UDPs). These development plans include both quantitative and qualitative data analysis on a variety of development issues and sectors which mainly include accessibility and main infrastructure, type of road and means of communication, demographic characteristics, community solidarity groups, major Incidents/events happened in the Village in the last 10 years, decision matrix and role of women in decision making, social statistics, financial assets/wealth ranking, social economic and ethnic vulnerabilities, migration trends, crops productions, livestock production, household income credit and utilization, sanitation facilitation, education and health facilities, livelihood, challenges for rural communities, problem identification and analysis, and 5-year development planning of village and union council. The grass root community institutions are now actively pursuing the implementation of these comprehensive VDPS and UDPs in their respective areas.

Poverty Score Card Survey

Under the ID Program, Poverty Score Card (PSC) Survey and Wealth ranking / Union Councils profiling were undertaken in the 17 union councils of districts Bannu and Lakki Marwat. In order to ensure the inclusion of poor households in the COs formation process, it was essential to identify various categories poor households in the targeted areas. The PSC survey was completed through a diligent process utilizing the expertise CMDO has acquired in conducting similar studies. In addition better community liaison and effective community participation contributed in the smooth conduct of the survey. The project staff conducted interviews of more than 6000 households/respondents within both the districts. Those interviewed comprised 50 % adult male and 50 % adult female. The survey found that 1106 no of households were extremely poor. The PSC survey score categories mainly include 0-11 extremely poor, 12-18 chronically poor, 19-23 poor, and 24 and above non poor. On the basis of this assessment the poor and vulnerable individuals were given representation in the COs formation process. They were also prioritized for skill development trainings and other development interventions under the ID Program.

Livelihood Investment Plans

CMDO’s livelihood program staff in coordination with COs developed livelihood investment plans of the selected program beneficiaries. After the completion of poverty score card surveys, the program staff analyzed household level livelihood asset pentagon and prioritized livelihood aspirations of selected poor families leading towards the preparation and implementation of livelihood investment plans in the program areas. CMDO through the application of Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) were able to analyze the overall strengths and weaknesses of the livelihood environment in the selected program areas. The livelihood pentagon includes analysis on Financial, Physical, Human, Natural, and Social Capitals of selected program beneficiaries. Below figure is giving insight about analyzing household level asset pentagon and Livelihood Investment Plans.

livli investment

Feasibility Study of Solar Energy Applications in FATA

CMDO has worked with NUST Consulting on the feasibility/survey of 450 villages in FATA and Frontier regions for solar electrification. The intervention was sponsored by the FATA Development Authority and technically supervised and managed by the NUST Consulting (NC). CMDO contributed and facilitated in undertaking survey activities of the project. The interventions later also undertook certain pilot projects such as solar electrification in one village, and the provisioning of solar lantern systems in two villages.

Job Market Assessment for Tribal Areas (FATA)

CMDO undertook extensive assessment study on the potential of job opportunities in the tribal areas of Pakistan. The project activity mainly include survey research with all concerned stakeholders particularly trade and industrial sectors in FATA.

Baseline Survey of Vulnerable Women and Children in District Peshawar

A comprehensive baseline survey on the identification of vulnerable women and children in district Peshawar was also undertaken by CMDO. The base line survey identified poverty stricken communities in district Peshawar where frequency of vulnerable women and children found in comparatively higher numbers.

Landmine Victims Survey

CMDO during 2001 undertook a comprehensive survey on the identification of land mine victims in the FATA’s bordering areas with Afghanistan. It also includes survey of landmine Infestation around proposed Afghan Refugee Camps in FATA.

Conflict Management and Peace Advocacy Project

CMDO undertook a number of advocacy campaigns on conflict management and peace building in FATA and KP Province. CMDO through the application of participatory methodologies actively engaged its grass root tribal communities in its peace advocacy activities in the conflict zone. CMDO over the last 8 years also collaborated with Tribal Network in undertaking activities concerning to peace education, organization of peace walks, seminars, dialogues, workshops, capacity building of local media, and promotion of the increased role of tribes in peace building and conflict transformation.

Advocacy on Prevention of Children Engagement in Armed Conflicts

CMDO in the past organized a comprehensive advocacy campaign on the prevention of children engagement in the armed conflicts. The main activities under this advocacy campaign include organizing awareness sessions in public schools, formation and capacity building of civil society and youth groups on children rights, lobbying and advocacy meeting with concerned local and provincial public institutions, and undertook public awareness campaigns in the local and national print media.

Administrative & Institutional Reforms Advocacy

CMDO in coordination with Tribal Network (TN) has raised its voice at national and global forums against the unjust and exploitative political and administrative governing structures in FATA and its adjoining FRs. CMDO through its advocacy campaigns demanded the complete removal of FCR and undertaking such administrative and institutional reforms which bring FATA into mainstream development process like rest of the areas in the countries. In this regard, CMDO in coordination with TN organized number of dialogues and seminars at provincial and national levels.

Gender and Development Advocacy Campaigns

Gender mainstreaming is one important cross cutting theme being incorporated in CMDO’s integrated programs. CMDO in collaboration with its community network organized a number of advocacy campaigns on the promotion of women development in the tribal and semi tribal areas of Pakistan. CMDO organized consultative meetings, seminars, and dialogues on the priority needs and importance of gender mainstreaming in the overall integrated development process in FATA and KP. The formulation of a large number of women organizations under CMDO’s ID program and its vibrant functioning is a manifestation of CMDO’s commitment towards accelerating women development process in FATA and KP province.

CMDO’s Future Research & Advocacy Plan

In line with its previous research and advocacy experiences in a variety of interconnected development sectors, CMDO would keep working on qualitative research and advocacy projects and activities in FATA and KP province. The research and advocacy would remain a cross cutting theme in all future integrated programs of CMDO. Therefore, it is strongly expected that CMDO would undertake FATA and KP region specific research studies in education, health, disaster management, infrastructure, energy, institutional development and livelihood sectors on continues basis and incorporate its findings in its future detailed programming and as well designing sector specific advocacy campaigns. It is also planned that CMDO would undertake detailed research and advocacy work on evolving pro-tribal conflict management and peace building strategies for FATA and its adjoining regions.