Geographical Context

Climate change is raising the frequency and scale of natural disasters all across Pakistan. It has put enormous impacts on already disaster prone Pakistan as frequency of natural disasters increased over the last two decades. More than thirty million people have been affected by disasters in Pakistan over the past three years. These disasters have led to large scale disaster managmenttemporary population dislocation, the loss of major state infrastructure, exacerbated existing gaps in educational and health services and ultimately led to increased levels of poverty and a reduction in living standards.

Both FATA and KP face a range of natural and human induced hazards including: floods, earthquakes, avalanches / landslides, droughts, militancy and terrorism. Major disasters in recent years include the 2005 earthquake, the 2010 monsoon floods, and the IDP crisis as a result of the GOP led operations against militant outfits. The FATA located on the western border of KP province has been at the forefront of the Government of Pakistan’s operations against militants since 2008. Resultantly, large number of displaced population from FATA took refuge in bordering districts of KP, ultimately forcing the province to take measures having an additional burden on provincial resources. The population of FATA and KP is also vulnerable due to its topography. Most of its inhabitants live in rural areas, score low on socio-economic indicators, and are poorly organized when it comes to DRM awareness and preparedness.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Report, NDMA, 2012

Disaster Management Program-An Introduction

The CMDO’s DM program strategic goal is to effectively contribute in emergency and recovery humanitarian operations in FATA and KP through the active participation of its grass root community institutions and public disaster management agencies. The CMDO’s DM program activities implemented in 4 agencies of FATA ad 9 districts of KP province. It include Bajur, Mohammand, Kurram, and South Waziristan agencies in FATA and Swat, Buner, Dir, Nowshera, Peshawar, Charsadda, Lakki Marwat, DI Khan and Tank districts in the KP Provinces. CMDO’s DM Program has developed strong working relationships with National and Provincial Govt Disaster Management Authorities and undertook a range of relief and recovery humanitarian operations both for natural disaster affectee and IDPs due to military operations in FATA. In relation to CMDO’s Disaster Management program, it has developed numerous partnerships with national and international humanitarian organizations including UNHCR, FAO, ECHO, USAID, Oxfam UK, MAG UK, Islamic Relief, and many individual philanthropists.

In view of the conflict situation and sensitivities of the areas, it was quite challenging tasks for COMDO Program to ensure active community participation in its relief and recovery operations. In view of its prolong disaster management experiences, CMDO developed efficient and effective strategies in the provision of relief items and undertaking rehabilitation activities for the IDPs from war affected areas. CMDO actively responded to the emergency needs of both natural and man-made disasters victims through the application of participatory methodologies and developing good working relationships with the affected and displaced population from FATA and KP province.

Below is a summary details of projects implemented under CMDO’s DM program in various parts of FATA and KP province. It includes projects details such as project name, partner, year of implementation, activities, number of beneficiaries, and intervened agencies and districts in FATA and KP.

Projects Name Partner Year of Implementation Activities Beneficiaries Agencies/

Districts

Protection/Errection of Emergency Shelters for 2010 Flood Affectees and 2009 IDPs; Registration of IDPs, NFIs Distribution for IDPS, Repatriation of IDPs of SW agency UNCHR 2010-12 Protection/Errection of 2100 shelters for 2009 IDPs; Registration of IDPs & Monitoring of the errection of shelters, NFIs etc for IDPS 53400 Swat, Mohmand & Bajaur agency FATA, DI khan, Tank
Distribution of Livestock Package to Flood Affectees FAO / ECHO / USAID 2010 Wheat Input , Seeds and Livestock Distribution 16000 Charsada , Nowshera
Food Distribution for returnee IDPs in Swat; Flood affectees in Nowshera, DI Khan, & Tank WFP 2010 Food Distribution for returnee IDPs in Swat; Flood affectees in Nowshera, DI Khan, & Tank 57658 Swat, Nowshera, DI khan, Tank
Shadenets and kitchens for IDPs in Jalozai UNHCR 2009 Shadenets and kitchens for IDPs in Jalozai 29803 Jalozai Camp Nowshera
Emergency Evacuation project OXFAM (UK) through MAG (UK) 2003 Emergency Evacuation project 5300 Bajaur & Kurrm Agency FATA
Mobile Health Units Islamic Relief (UK) 2002 Mobile Health Units 6740 Bajaur & Kurram Agency FATA

Source: CMDO’s DM Program Records

Women, elderly people, and children are most vulnerable population segment in both natural and man-made disaster situations. The gender mainstreaming is one cross cutting theme of CMDO’s DM Program. CMDO in its relief and recovery operations effectively addressed the gender related problems and issues. CMDO facilitated women groups on priority basis in its humanitarian operations in FATA and KP. The women communities actively participated in WASH related awareness sessions, distribution of food and NFI activities, and livelihood enhancement training sessions. The health issues of women and young girls were adequately addressed through the provision of medical health facilities and Psycho social support services.

Types of Disaster Management Interventions

Emergency Relief Operations

  1. A) Emergency Evacuations

As a consequent of war on terror in FATA, CMDO in partnership with Oxfam GB undertook rapid emergency evacuation operations in various parts of the Bajur and Kurram agencies during 2003. CMDO was able to save thousands of precious lives in these emergency evacuation operations. CMDO through the provision of transport facilities evacuated people from active war zone areas and shifted them to the safer places. CMDO also assisted disaster affected communities in the evacuation process during 2010 natural flood disasters and SWAT military operation in 2009-10.

  1. B) Emergency Shelters & Protection

CMDO supplied, fabricated, and erected 3425 ‘transitional emergency shelters’ for affectees in district Swat and Lower Dir KPK who lost their homes either due to the conflict or July 2010 devastating floods. CMDO’s emergency shelter and protection activities were initiated through Post Conflict Shelter Program which produced the erection of 1425 shelters in Charbagh Tehsil of Swat district until the July 2010 floods struck. During the second phase of the project a total of 2000 emergency shelters were completed. This initiative is benefitting a total of 3425 families or 24000 persons including children and women. CMDO also established emergency camps at Karapa Buner with the help of UNHCR. At least 5000 tent were pitched in August 2009 to facilities the housing of retiring IDPs.

  1. C) Distribution of Food Items and NFIs

CMDO provided food items to the more than 18000 displaced families during 2010 floods and Swat Operation. 3425 In relation to the NFIs, CMDO distributed tents and NFIs in Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies in FATA and DIK and Tank districts in KP. Household kitchens and Shade nets as protection from the sun were provided to 3500 families in Jalozai IDP camp in Nowshera. In previous 2010 flood disaster CMDO was also involved in food, NFI and Tents distribution in DIK and Tank districts with WFP and UNHCR.

In order to provide cover for tent against heat and sun and create some useful space besides the tent for cooking and boiling water for children to play, CMDO has provided 3500 families a shade-net-structure in Jalozai camp, Phase 4 & 5. The shade nets measures 9 meters square were erected for the benefits of thousands displaced families. At a time when the military operation forced the natives of Malakand Division to evacuate during May 2009, the construction of shade nets proved a welcome respite for IDP in the emergency camps in the prevailing hot season in Mardan/Peshawer.

  1. D) Education & Health Services

CMDO in its emergency relief operations also contributed in the provision of basic education and health services to the displaced population in natural disasters and war against terrorism. The educational materials and facilities were provided to the affected children in the relief camps. CMDO organized health camps in Nowshera, Charsadda, Peshawar and Lakki Marwat Districts in KP. CMDO through such camps provided basic health services to the disaster affected families in the relief camps which mainly include treatment of diseases and distribution of medicine. CMDO also operated mobile health units for the affected population of Bajur and Kurram agencies in FATA. The provision of education and health services benefited a lot to the women, children, and elderly population living in the relief camps.

  1. E) Children Play Areas

CMDO also contributed in the establishment of children play areas in number of relief camps in KP. The children play areas include playing facilities for children and youth such as playing cricket, basket ball, volley ball, etc. This intervention was designed to engage the youth in healthier activities at a time of great distress. The youth responded well and were found interested to utilize the facility well.

  1. F) Emergency Transit Camps for IDPs Repatriation

CMDO in its relief operations for the war affected displaced families of South Waziristan agency also worked on the management of emergency transit camps. CMDO was mainly responsible for the day to day basis operations and management of 3 transitional camps in Tank and DI Khan for returnee IDPs of South Waziristan. CMDO also provided cooked food and NFIs to IDPs repatriating to the South Waziristan agency. Each of these camps was the capacity to handle 1000 people at one time. More than 5700 families of South Waziristan from these emergency camps have been repatriated in three phases.

  1. G) Logistics Services

CMDO in its emergency relief operations also contributed in the form of providing logistics services such as supplies of relief goods and warehouse management. CMDO through its DM program staff facilitated in the transportation and supply of relief items and later its distribution at the emergency camps. CMDO also facilitated its partner organizations in the management of warehouses in KP province.

Recovery & Rehabilitation

CMDO also undertook recovery and rehabilitation operations in natural and man-made disasters in FATA and KP Province. The major activities in such operations include livelihood enhancement trainings, vocational skills trainings, distribution of livestock and NFI among the returning natural disaster affected families. CMDO’s in such recovery operation provided wheat seeds, fertilizers, vegetable seed, and livestock feed among 16000 families returning from relief camps in Nowshera and Charsadda. CMDO also provided various kinds of livelihood enhancement vocational skills training to the 6443 IDPs which include both male and female. The vocational skills trainings mainly include masonry, plumbing, electrician, carpentry, tailoring and embroidery. CMDO’s grass root community institutions network also coordinated with CMDO DM program staff in the short and long term recovery and rehabilitation of disaster affected families from FATA and KP province.

CMDO’s Future Disaster Management Program

Based on the experiences of previously implemented activities under emergency response and recovery projects, CMDO is now aiming to design and implement 5-year based disaster preparedness and management program. One core objective of the program would be to increase the capacities of CMDO and its associated COs/NGOs network and districts/agency governments to effectively deal with emergency response and recovery activities. The proposed program activities would include establishing effective early warning system and rescue mechanism for affected people.

The other program actions during pre-disaster time would include advocating with district government to increase their own emergency stock piling by allocating separate budgets for it and as well mobilize them for the preparation of district level disaster preparedness and emergency response plans based on alternative perspectives. In case of any future disaster CMDO would work on establishing relief camps and temporary latrines/sanitation at already identified safer locations, ensuring health and hygiene and child protection and nutrition at relief camps, distribution of hygiene kits and food/non food items, facilitating local communities in reconstruction of shelter and other primary infrastructure, repair and installations of hand pumps, and revival of livelihood activities in the damaged areas.

The program activities would also further supplement and integrate with the previous humanitarian response and recovery activities with a particular focus on building the resilience of disaster prone communities of FATA/KP towards reducing the risks of disaster damages and effectively coping with the aftermaths of disasters. Community level capacity building DRR trainings would be an essential component of this program. Under this program, CMDO would prepare and implement 20 union council level disaster preparedness and risk reduction plans in the targeted districts/agencies of FATA/KP during a period of next 5 year. Another priority action under this program would be to revise the TORs of DDMAs and advocate for making it more functional and responsive to the needs of preparing district/tehsil level DRR plans through the coordination of local disaster risk communities and civil society organizations.