Geographical Context

The geographical coverage of CMDO’s CPI program mainly includes five agencies of FATA and Southern Bannu and Lakki Marwat districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. Both FATA and these Southern KP districts with 4 million and 1 million populations respectively are among the poorest parts of Pakistan. The large number of population living in these regions lacks access to basic services including clean drinking water, sanitation and adequate physical access to social cpi1services. Majority of people depend on subsistence agriculture and livestock and the visible absence of progress translates even small shocks into large increases in destitution. In both regions, water, sanitation, agriculture, and livestock sectors have been identified to be especially poorly resourced and under-developed.

Over 97% of the population in FATA resides in rural areas with 2.7 million hectares under agricultural use. The unemployment is particularly high among young men aged 15-30. The region is the most underdeveloped in Pakistan with over 60% of its population living below national poverty line. Similarly, both Bannu and Lakki Marwat districts are also generally considered as low human development districts in the KP province. Due to the low level of education, health and economy, the Human Development Index (HDI) Ranks of Districts Bannu and Lakki Marwat are 15 and 14 respectively out of the total 20 districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The HDI values in these districts are 0.495 and 0.501 respectively. The levels of multiple deprivations in district Lakki Marwat is 53.2 which is comparatively higher to medium level 47.3 in district Bannu

About 58.7% of the FATA population does not have access to clean drinking water, including 16.2% who use surface water. Family members spend considerable time in fetching water on a daily basis. The majority of households collect water from sources outside their dwelling. Nearly 85% of families in rural areas collect water from sources outside their house. Around 46.4% of households in rural areas fetch water in 30 minutes to one hour, while 25% spend more than one hour to fetch water. The sanitation coverage is reported to be a mere 28.1% of households that use sanitary hygienic facilities. Amongst these the rural households with improved sanitation facilities are 26%. A common type of improved sanitation is the pit latrine with flush, used by 12.4% of households. More or less similar kind of situation is prevailing in the Southern parts of KP Province.

CPI Program-An Introduction

The strategic goal of CMDO’s CPI program is to improve living standard and contribute in livelihood enhancement through establishing and upgrading small scale physical infrastructure among marginalized poor communities of FATA and KP Province. CMDO in partnership with Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF) is mainly implementing the CPI program over the last 15 years. During the course of implementing CPI program, it was generally observed that poor communities in FATA and KP have generally shown priority demand for unpaved roads and bridges, irrigation, infrastructure, drainage and sanitation, safe drinking water, drought prevention and flood protection mechanisms.

CMDO’s CPI program comprises interventions in drinking and irrigation water supply schemes: efficient irrigation CPIschemes (drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation), hand pumps, tube/dug wells, distribution network, gravity schemes, water storage tanks, bore-holes, streets and drainage pavement, fields to market access roads, cause ways, culverts, gabion flood protection walls, schools and BHU physical infrastructure improvement, solar lighting system installation at village level, solar pumping system for drinking and irrigation purposes, rehabilitation and construction of shelters, houses and other community infrastructures.

Overall, CPI program is stretched over to more than 360 villages in FATA and KP province benefiting approximately 418,482 populations. Below is summary detail of CPI program schemes implemented during the last 15 years.

  • Installed 739 hand pumps at the community level to the benefit of 147,800 persons
  • Installed/constructed 49 tube wells/ submersibles/dug-wells
  • Constructed 76 storage water tanks
  • Installed 5 solar water pumps
  • Installed 55 pressure pumps
  • Installed 21 hand pumps in schools in order to provide access to children to safe drinking water
  • Constructed 47,112 rft irrigation lines through 10 irrigation schemes
  • Constructed 41 irrigation schemes including 11 submersibles pumps
  • Constructed 9 pipe irrigation schemes
  • Constructed 15 drip-irrigation schemes to the benefit of more than 45 poor farmers
  • Rehabilitated 3.5 kms long irrigation channels/watercourses for agricultural development
  • Constructed 250 pour flush latrines at the households level
  • Constructed 7,215 rft long drainage lines
  • Constructed 263,458 sq. ft street pavement
  • Constructed 8 No. of link roads/shingle roads
  • Constructed 2 culverts
  • Constructed 18 flood protection/ gabion walls that protected more than 320 acres of agriculture land
  • Installed solar lighting system at 810 households

It was quite challenging task for CMDO and its associated grass root community institutions to implement such public infrastructure CPI schemes in the active conflict zone. The program activities implemented through participatory community development approaches. The hundreds of Community Organizations and Committees were actively involved in the planning and implementation of CPI schemes in their respective areas. The schemes benefited thousands of vulnerable poor families in many ways such as access to safe drinking water facility, improving sanitation infrastructure and public health measures, enhancing accessibility through link roads, and constructing irrigation channels for increased agriculture productivity and livelihood options enhancement.

The CPI schemes implemented under CMDO’s CPI Program indicate that standard need assessment procedures and participatory planning process were adopted in various phases of the program. Majority of the CPI schemes are identified and prioritized by the beneficiary communities themselves. The demands of CPI schemes were quite high in comparison to the available funds for schemes. Therefore, priority was given to most vulnerable, marginalized, and poor communities in the intervened agencies and districts. The beneficiaries communities were involved in the entire planning process cycle ranging from selection of beneficiaries within the target community, detailed planning of implementing the scheme, and establishing community level implementation and monitoring mechanisms.

Local level community institutions in the form of COs and project committees were formulated during the course of implementing each CPI scheme which contributed towards the ownership and sustainability of CPI schemes by communities themselves in vast majority cases. In order to implement each CPI scheme, usually three committees were formed by the CO which include implementation committee, audit committee, and operational/maintenance committee. The CPI schemes enhanced the managerial skills of the community and contributed in mobilizing community resources for collective action. The CMDO’s CPI program is relevant, realistic and achievable in terms of setting the objectives; determining the targets and addressing the needs; selection of beneficiaries and geographical locations in FATA and Southern KP. The CPI program is relevant as it addressed the immediate infrastructure needs and also targeted the vulnerable areas and people.

Types of CPI Program Schemes

Type of CPI CMDO

In view of the volume of CMDO’s CPI implemented schemes, the program interventions are mainly categorized into four major types which include Drinking Water Supply Schemes (DWSS), Drainage and Sanitation, Irrigation schemes, and link roads. The DWSS schemes were the largest number of CPI schemes implemented by CMDO. The implementation of DWSS schemes in such large quantities indicates that provision of safe drinking water in one of the largest priority need of local communities in FATA and KP province. The DWSS under CMDO’s CPI program ensure the supply, quality and sustainability of clean and hygienic sources of drinking water. The sub-projects under DWSS include hand-pumps, dug wells; tap/piped water supply, tube wells, pressure/submersible pumps, water tanks, etc. DWSS’s type and scope was dependent upon the community’s location and access to existing water supply.

The drainage and sanitation schemes were seeking to improve and upgrade the provision of drainage and sanitation facilities within communities so as to decrease the prevalence of disease and promote environmental sustainability within communities. The Sub-projects under this category include community latrines, upgrading and cleaning drains, etc. The implementation of Irrigation schemes under CPI program contributed a lot in water conservation and improving livelihood and income generation of hundreds of small farmers in FATA and KP province. The irrigation schemes were mainly dealing with the rehabilitation and lining of watercourses. CMDO also constructed a number of link roads under its CPI program which contributed in providing access, improving transportation and allowing market linkages in remote and inaccessible project areas.

Drinking Water Supply Schemes (DWSS)

The geographical coverage of DWSS schemes indicates that the highest numbers of DWSS schemes were implemented in Bajur agency followed by Khyber, Kurram, Lakki Marwat and Bannu. The least number of DWSS schemes were implemented in Mohmand agency. DWSS benefited the CMDO’s CPI program communities in number of ways such as availability of drinking water at or near the door steps leading to time savings and its productive use in other income generating activities, comparatively better quality of water with limited chances of damage and contamination, and thus saving in medical expenses on account of illness. Below are some observations of village communities in relation to the benefits of DWSS in their respective villages.

water

Village Azam Nai Abadi, Khyber agency, FATA

“Due to the unity and active participation by community members, this project was quite successful in addressing the water supply need of the village. The local CBO raised funds and contributed more than 20% in this scheme. Now over the last 7 years, CBO is responsible for the maintenance and repair work of scheme as funds raised through community contributions is used for this purpose. However, very poor families are benefiting this facility free of cost. Due to access to safe drinking water, there is decrease in water borne diseases in the village”.

Village Sheikh Kalay, Bajur Agency, FATA

 

“The village is located in close proximity to the Afghan border area with difficult accessibility and highly underdeveloped conditions. Under ground water level is quite low due to which it was quite difficult to extract underground water. Before the intervention, local people particularly women and children were forced to bring water from areas 10 Km away from the village. Earlier the water source was rainwater stored in open ponds which was also used by the livestock. Water borne diseases were quite common in the area. Now with the provision of this scheme, one basic problem of local community is resolved and there is improvement in the lives of local people”.

Case Study: A Village in District Bannu Benefiting from DWSS Scheme

Gulzar Akhundan village located 5 km away from Bannu City is one of the least developed villages in the area. The entire 300 village population is living below the poverty line and confronted with numerous livelihood issues. Availability of safe drinking water was one big issue of the village as it consumed lot of energy, time, and resources to fetch water from far flung areas. The quality of water was not even good due to which local population was confronted with various diseases. With the support of CMDO, we were able to organize ourselves in the form of establishing two male/female COs in our village. The established COs in coordination with CMDO worked on the installation of pressure pump and water tank in our village. Now we have access to safe drinking water due to which additional work burden on our women and children is drastically reduced. Children who earlier consumed time on bringing water from distant areas now focus more on their educational activities.

The annexed figure 1 of Impact diagram drawn by a beneficiary community from Village Nar Akbar Ali District Bannu indicates multiple level positive impacts on the lives of local communities such as availability of drinking water facility inside the village, time saving, increased education activities of children, increased savings, improved livelihood conditions, and enhanced community mobilization and organization.

 

 

The Findings of Evaluation Study on DWSS Schemes Implemented during 2003-11

 

S. No Observed Indicators Findings

 

1 Priority Need Identification 100% rightly identified priority need of drinking water supply in all schemes
2 Level of Community Participation 80% high level of community participation whereas 20% medium level of community participation
3 Functionality 80% water supply schemes are functional whereas 20% are non-functional
4 Maintenance Level 60% schemes are highly maintained whereas 20% with medium to low level maintenance and 20% have no maintenance level
5 Design Efficiency 70% schemes were observed design efficient whereas 30% schemes have design flaws such as height of water tank and conditions of installed pipes and machinery
6 Effectiveness 80% schemes were found highly effective in terms of meeting the water requirements of targeted population
7 Sustainability 60% schemes were found fully sustainable in long term perspective
8 Social Impacts High Social Impacts on the well beings of women and children, education activities of children improved
9 Economic Impacts Medium to low economic impacts in terms of savings generated through reduced health cost and purchasing of water
10 Natural Impacts No adverse impacts on the natural environments of the program villages
11 Built Impacts 20% schemes component like water tanks were found inside the boundary wall of private owner

Source: CMDO CPI Program Evaluation Field Work

Sanitation Schemes

The sanitation schemes under CPI program were the second largest number of schemes implemented in Khyber, Bajur, and Kurram agencies of FATA and Bannu and Lakki Marwat districts of KP province. The sanitation schemes were mainly included street pavements and construction of drains in the prioritized identified locations within the selected villages. The priority criteria was to provide sanitation facilities to the most vulnerable and poor families within the village. The drainage and sanitation schemes benefited project villages in number of ways such as access and availability to latrines, better sanitation conditions, better hygienic conditions, savings in medical expenses, and smooth flow in the paved street. Below are some observations of beneficiaries communities on drainage and sanitation CPI schemes.sanitation

Village Nar Abbas, District Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

“Before intervention street condition was miserable and in case of rain it was impossible to walk through it. We were earlier used to take our patients on stretcher as there were ditches in the street. After the completion of scheme, local community benefited in number of ways such as improved accessibility, reduce diseases, and good drainage conditions. The scheme mainly benefited the poorest families of our village. The scheme is in good conditions and well maintained by the local CO. Later on, a number of culverts were also constructed on self help basis”.

Village Kotla Ganangul, District Bannu

“There was active community participation in the planning and implementation of street pavement and drain construction activities in the village. The scheme heavily contributed in improving the mobility and health conditions of local community members. The current functioning of scheme is even better now as CO ensure to keep raising funds for its repair and maintenance on continuous basis. CO members are actively involved in the cleanliness of street and drain each after 2 weeks. CO has been able to collect funds from within the village for the replication of scheme in other parts of the village”.

Case Study: Improved Sanitary Conditions in a Village of District Lakki Marwat

Kotka Nar Abas is situated in union council Nar Abu Samand Begu Khel, Tehsil Naurang, District Lakki Marwat. Though it is situated in proximity to the tehsil head quarter but still it is a backward area and literacy rate is very low. Most of the people belong to poor families and they do not even have the basic necessities of living. Few educated members of the community started thinking about the problems of the community and fortunately at that time CMDO visited their village. They zealously welcomed the CMDO team and started formation of community organization. After that they conducted regular community meetings and passed resolutions in which they highlighted poor sanitary condition as one of their village’s prioritized problems. CMDO team after watching miserable condition of the street and problems associated with it referred their case to PPAF and street pavement was approved for them. They took active part in implementation of this sanitation scheme. Daily routine work of the people of the village is now not interrupted; similarly access to the main road is easy now. Children can reach their school in time in any kind of season. The implementation of scheme also built the CO capacity regarding finding out problems of the community and then resolving them through mutual collaboration and consultation. The people of the village are now very much cooperative with developmental organizations and they have now linkages with other organizations working in this area like SADP, SABAWOON and SPO. In short the positive change has observed in the people and a constructive mind set up has developed.

The annexed figure 2 regarding impact of sanitation scheme on Village Nar Abas District Lakki Marwat is indicating variety of positive impacts such as improved drainage facility, reduction in solid waste open dumps, decreased diseases, and enhanced accessibility.

The Findings of Evaluation Study on Sanitation Schemes Implemented during 2003-11

 

S. No Observed Indicators Findings

 

1 Priority Need Identification 75% rightly identified priority need of sanitation schemes in intervened villages
2 Level of Community Participation 75% high level of community participation whereas 25% medium level of community participation
3 Functionality 90% sanitation schemes are functional and fully working in the areas.
4 Maintenance Level 75% schemes are highly maintained whereas 25% with medium to low level maintenance.
5 Design Efficiency 90% schemes were observed design efficient as no technical problem observed in relation to the design of the sanitation schemes.
6 Effectiveness 90% schemes were found highly effective in terms of meeting the sanitation requirements of targeted population
7 Sustainability 75% schemes were found fully sustainable in long term perspective
8 Social Impacts High Social Impacts in terms of mobility, well beings, and improved health conditions of population benefiting from the sanitation schemes.
9 Economic Impacts Medium to low economic impacts in terms of savings generated through reduced health cost.
10 Natural Impacts Natural environments of the program villages improved after the completion of schemes.
11 Built Impacts Improved built environment of program villages after the completion of sanitation schemes.

Source: CMDO CPI Program Evaluation Field Work

Irrigational Channels

The irrigation channels schemes were mainly implemented in Khyber and Bajur agencies and districts Bannu and Lakki Marwat. The irrigation schemes were mainly concerned to the rehabilitation and lining/cementing of conventional irrigational channels in the agricultural fields. The irrigation channels scheme largely benefited small farmers in terms of increased crops yield, effective water utility, and increasing their income level. Below are the observations of a village community regarding the impact of irrigation channel on their livelihood.

irrigation

Village Ghundi, Khyber Agency

“Construction of line/concrete irrigation channel contributed a lot in improved crops productivity and economic well being of majority farming community of the village. Earlier, there was more wastage of water due to conventional irrigational channel. Similarly, there were more conflicts among local farmers on the distribution of water. Local community is highly satisfied with the outcomes of the irrigation channel scheme”.

 

 

Case Study: Livelihood Enhancement of a Small Farmer in Khyber Agency

Mohammad Jan is a young small farmer living in Ghundi village of Khyber Agency. His main livelihood source is farming on his 1 acre agriculture land. Before the scheme, Jan used to spend more money on purchasing tube well irrigated water as one third of the water wasted due to conventional irrigation channel in his land. The productivity of crop was also on low side and he was over burden with the input costs of the crops. He also confronted with number violent conflicts with his neighboring farmers over the distribution of water. Now after the lining of irrigation channel passing through his land, he witnessed many positive changes such as reduction in the wastage of water, less cost on irrigating his farming land, less time require irrigating his land, improved crops yield, and increased income which led towards improving the livelihood conditions of his family.

 

The annexed figure 3 about Impact diagram of an irrigation channel scheme in village Nasradin of district Bannu indicates that prolonged conflicts among local famers largely resolved, improvement observed in the equitable distribution of irrigation water, and small farmers started to earn more due to increased crops yield.

The Findings of Evaluation Study on Irrigation Schemes Implemented during 2003-11

 

S. No Observed Indicators Findings

 

1 Priority Need Identification 60% rightly identified priority need of irrigational channel schemes in intervened villages
2 Level of Community Participation 65% high level of community participation whereas 35% medium to low level of community participation
3 Functionality 65% irrigation schemes are functional whereas 35% are not functional in the areas.
4 Maintenance Level 65% schemes are maintained whereas 35% have no maintenance.
5 Design Efficiency 65% schemes were observed design efficient as technical problem observed in 35% schemes such as use of non- responsive materials in the lining of channels.
6 Effectiveness 65% schemes were found effective in terms of meeting the irrigation requirements of targeted population
7 Sustainability 50% schemes were found fully sustainable in long term perspective
8 Social Impacts High Social Impacts in terms of resolving the prolonged conflicts among farmers community over the distribution of water for irrigation purposes.
9 Economic Impacts High economic impacts in terms of increased crops yield, saving through less consumption of water in fields, and increased income level of farmers.
10 Natural Impacts Some minor impacts on natural environments such as cutting of trees along the irrigation channels
11 Built Impacts Improved built environment of irrigation channels and agricultural fields in the program villages after the completion of schemes.

Source: CMDO CPI Program Evaluation Field Work

Link Roads

The link roads construction schemes under CMDO’s CPI program were mainly implemented in district Lakki Marwat. The construction of link roads and culverts at required crossings highly contributed in improving the mobility and accessibility of entire beneficiaries project population and as well people living in the surrounding villages. Below are reflections of a beneficiary community regarding link road scheme in their village.

Village Yaseen Manjiwala, District Lakki Marwat

 

“Earlier our village was connected through a Katcha road due to which we were facing multiple problems such as difficult accessibility, prevalence of dust, high ratio of diseases, and huge difficulties in rainy season and in case of medical emergency. With the financial support of CMDO, we were able to construct shingle link road which significantly reduced our accessibility and mobility problems. The construction of link road also benefited 4 other surrounding villages. Stone turning walls and plantation were also done at some locations of the road. Local community actively participated in the scheme in terms of providing labor services and financial contribution to the scheme. At present, we feel the need of improving the road conditions by converting it from shingle road to black top road”.

Case Study: Construction of Link Road in a Village of District Lakki Marwat

Majority of people living in Yaseen Manji Wala are small farmers and daily wage laborers. Before CMDO intervention people were facing difficulties in mobility and easy access to the nearby town. The people of the village before the intervention had no idea about CMDO and PPAF but as the scheme was approved for them, they started to develop their linkages with developmental organizations and started to solve their problems on self help bases. The people of the village took physical part in constructing the road. They also made food arrangement for the laborers and other people involved in the construction of the road. People at the start of the intervention started to form community organization and in short time most of the people were mobilized. The construction of the shingle road greatly reduced the problems of the people. The people are feeling great relief because now they have easy access to the city and they can now easily transport their agricultural products to the city. The children can now easily continue their studies because now transportation to the city is easily available. Similarly the people now feel ease even in case of rain and no stagnant water is thereafter rain. The scheme has positive impact over environment. In short the people are much happy and satisfied over this scheme. The people are now aware of the importance of the developmental organizations and now are very much helpful to these organizations. The local CO has now linkages with Southern Areas Development Project (SADP), SABAWOON and SPO. The people have increased capacity to identify their problems and solve these problems on self help bases. The CO is now well connected with government line department and actively involving them in resolving their problems.

The annexed figure 4 regarding impact diagram drawn by the community members of Village Yaseen Manji Wala shows that village population and even people in surrounding villages benefited a lot in terms of improved mobility, accessibility, and increased economic activities after the completion of link road.

The Findings of Evaluation Study on Link Road Schemes Implemented during 2003-11

 

S. No Observed Indicators Findings

 

1 Priority Need Identification The rightly identified priority need of link road scheme in intervened village
2 Level of Community Participation High level of community participation in planning and implementation of scheme
3 Functionality Medium level functionality of link road scheme observed and there are further areas of improvement to upgrade it.
4 Maintenance Level Link road scheme is well maintained and regularly repaired by the local CO.
5 Design Efficiency As per shingle road design efficiency is satisfactory, however, local community demands for retaining wall and upgrading of the road as a metal surface road.
6 Effectiveness Link road schemes were found effective in terms of resolving the mobility and accessibility issues of the community.
7 Sustainability Link road schemes were found sustainable in long term perspective
8 Social Impacts High Social Impacts in terms of resolving the prolonged mobility and accessibility issues of entire village population including children going for education in nearby town.
9 Economic Impacts Medium economic impacts in terms of easy transportation of crops to nearby town, better mobility, and increased income level of farmers.
10 Natural Impacts Some minor impacts on natural environments observed such as cutting of trees along the link road and increased air pollution
11 Built Impacts Improved built environment of the program village as local population is more mobile and well connected with other surrounding villages and towns.

Source: CMDO CPI Program Evaluation Field Work

Other CPI Interventions

CMDO under the project entitled ‘Drought Mitigation and Preparedness Program’ has also completed 33 high efficient irrigation schemes in Bajaur Agency-FATA. Due to the lack of irrigation water and the need to utilize available water judiciously CMDO has employed high water efficient technology to reduce wastage. The project has benefited agriculture lands under cultivation for fruit orchards in Bajaur agency and benefited a population of 10,000. Solar Water Pumps are also planned in order to develop renewable energy sources for the project communities.

Under the similar project, 10 schemes of flood protection including plum concrete and gabion structures were also completed in Bajaur agency and district Bannu and Lakki Marwat. The flood protection structures are expected to protect villages and agriculture field, including standing crops from the ravages of floods.

The Economic and Quality of Life Impacts Analysis of CPI Schemes

The economic and quality of life impacts analysis of CMDO’s CPI Program schemes is mainly based on project records and field investigations in the project areas. The economic internal rates of return of CPI schemes were mainly calculated on broader (non-cash) benefits obtained in economic terms through implementing these projects in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and road sectors. Examples of the benefits measured to calculate EIRRs are listed below.

Water Supply

  • Time savings in collecting water.
  • Cost savings in obtaining water.
  • Health benefits due to access to safe drinking water

Sanitation

  • Increase in the value of house adjacent to the sanitation scheme
  • Health benefits due to access to sanitation services

Irrigation

  • Incremental increase in the value of agricultural land serviced by the new irrigation works.
  • Incremental increase in incomes due to better harvests resulting from reliable water supply.
  • Savings from avoiding damage to buildings and crops due to flooding.

Link Roads

  • Time savings due to faster transportation
  • Cost savings due to more efficient transportation of goods to market.

Economic Internal Rates of Return CMDO CPI Schemes

Type of CPI Scheme Average IRR (%)
Water Supply 35.5
Sanitation 41
Irrigation 62
Link Road 49
Total 47

Source: CMDO CPI Program Evaluation Field Work & Project Records

The average IRR in irrigation schemes is comparatively higher followed by road, sanitation, and water supply schemes. Overall, the average IRR of entire CPI schemes is 47% which indicates high level of benefits against the costs/expenditures invested in these communities based physical infrastructure schemes.

The Quality of Life Impacts of CMDO CPI Schemes among Project Communities

Type of CPI Scheme Impact Strongly felt Impact Felt Impact Barely Felt
Water Supply 55% 31% 14%
Sanitation 69% 22% 9%
Irrigation 70% 20% 10%
Link Road 65% 35%

Source: CMDO CPI Program Evaluation Field Work & Project Records

CMDO’s Future CPI Program

CMDO through the implementation of large number of CPI schemes over a longer period of time has been able to gain worthy experiences and vast scale grass root connectivity in FATA and Southern parts of KP Province. The CMDO’s CPI program experiences reflect a huge scale potential of replicating its wide range activities in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, link road, and renewable energy sectors. It was widely observed in CPI schemes cost benefit analysis that it provided physical, social, economic, and environmental benefits to large number of population with limited financial investments. The active participation of communities in CPI schemes in terms of doing volunteer labor and sharing financial and material resources made it highly cost effective interventions. Therefore, CMDO in next 5-year would extensive working on larger level replication of its CPI program among intervened marginalized communities in FATA/KP.

It is now high time that CMDO should devise next 5-year phase of CPI Program for FATA and KP. The emphasis of future CPI Program should be more on developing pro-active partnerships in between Community institutions and public line departments and maximum utilization and exploration of existing and new resources available at the local, provincial, and national levels. The future CPI program objectives should include provision of Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation Facilities, improving agricultural infrastructure by introducing efficient irrigation system and minimizing water losses, converting water supply schemes into alternative energy sources, promoting alternative renewable energy supply sources, developing Farms to Market Access Roads, and minimizing land erosion by introducing protection work.